Keywords: IBM Qiskit, Prime Factorization, Quantum Factoring, RSA, Shor’s Algorithm.
The advancement of quantum computing in recent years poses severe threats to the RSA public-key cryptosystem. The RSA cryptosystem fundamentally relies its security on the computational hardness of number theory problems: prime factorization (integer factoring). Shor’s quantum factoring algorithm could theoretically answer the computational problem in polynomial time. This paper contributes to the experiment and demonstration of Shor’s quantum factoring algorithm for RSA prime factorization using IBM Qiskit. The performance of the quantum program is evaluated based on user time and the success probability. The results show that a more significant public modulus N in the RSA public key improves factorization’s computational hardness, requiring more quantum bits to solve. A further enhancement on implementing Shor’s oracle function is essential in increasing success probability and reducing the number of shots required.